Aggregate functions

Aggregate functions (or aggregations) are functions that combine multiple values from a group of entries into one, thus collapsing the group into a single entry.

If you add an aggregation to a dimension, it becomes a measure.

Syntax

In most cases aggregate functions have the same syntax as regular functions:

AGGREGATE_FUNCTION_NAME(arg1, [arg2, ...])

For advanced cases, extended syntax may be required to indicate a custom level of detail (LOD):

<AGGREGATE_FUNCTION_NAME>(    arg1, [arg2, ...]    [ FIXED dim1, dim2, ...    | INCLUDE dim1, dim2, ...    | EXCLUDE dim1, dim2, ... ]    [ BEFORE FILTER BY filtered_field1, ... ])

Level of Detail (LOD)

Custom LOD make possible nested aggregations and aggregations over the entire set of rows or groups that are different from the grouping at the chart's level.

LOD can be specified using one of three keywords:

  • FIXED — data is grouped using the listed dimensions (dim1, dim2, ...) regardless of the dimensions used by the chart;
  • INCLUDE — the listed dimensions (dim1, dim2, ...) are combined with the chart's dimensions;
  • EXCLUDE — all of the chart's dimensions are used with the exception of those listed (dim1, dim2, ...).

For any of these keywords the list may have any number of dimensions, or even be empty.

Dimension Inheritance

Dimensions are inherited by nested aggregations from the ones they are inside of. The expression

AVG(MAX(SUM([Sales] INCLUDE [City]) INCLUDE [Category]))

in a chart with the additional dimension [Date] is equivalent to

AVG(MAX(SUM([Sales] FIXED [City], [Category], [Date]) FIXED [Category], [Date]) FIXED [Date])

INCLUDE or EXCLUDE without a list of dimensions results in the same dimensions as the aggregation above or dimensions of the chart if it is the topmost aggregation. FIXED without a list means that all data is aggregated in a single group, which can be used to calculate total values.

LOD Examples

  • average daily sum of [Sales]: AVG(SUM([Sales] INCLUDE [Date]));
  • ratio of the (daily) sum of [Sales] to the total sum: SUM([Sales]) / SUM([Sales] FIXED);
  • sum of [Sales] of all orders that are smaller than average: SUM_IF(SUM([Sales] INCLUDE [Order ID]), SUM([Sales] INCLUDE [Order ID]) < AVG([Sales] FIXED)).

Dimension Compatibility

If several aggregations with custom LODs are nested inside another, their sets of dimensions must be compatible, i.e. one of them must contain all of the others.

Invalid expression:

SUM(AVG([Sales] INCLUDE [City]) - AVG([Sales] INCLUDE [Category]))

One of the nested aggregations has dimension [City], while the other has [Category], and there is no other that would contain both of these.

Valid expression:

SUM(    AVG([Sales] INCLUDE [City], [Category])    - (AVG([Sales] INCLUDE [City]) + AVG([Sales] INCLUDE [Category])) / 2)

One of the nested aggregations' set of dimensions contains all of the others.

Another important restriction for LOD is that top-level aggregations must not contain any dimensions not used in the chart.

BEFORE FILTER BY

If any fields are listed in BEFORE FILTER BY, then this aggregate function is calculated before data is filtered using these fields.

BEFORE FILTER BY applies to all nested aggregate functions too.
Example:

  • Formula — AVG(SUM([Sales] INCLUDE [Date]) BEFORE FILTER BY [City]).
  • Equivalent — AVG(SUM([Sales] INCLUDE [Date] BEFORE FILTER BY [City]) BEFORE FILTER BY [City]).

Do not use conflicting BEFORE FILTER BY clauses:

  • Valid: AVG(SUM([Sales] INCLUDE [Date] BEFORE FILTER BY [City], [Category]) BEFORE FILTER BY [City]) — functions are nested and ([City]) is a subset of ([City], [Category]).
  • Valid: AVG(SUM([Sales] INCLUDE [Date] BEFORE FILTER BY [Category]) BEFORE FILTER BY [City]) — functions are nested, so field lists are combined in the second of the two functions.
  • Valid: SUM([Sales] BEFORE FILTER BY [City], [Category]) - SUM([Sales] BEFORE FILTER BY [City]) — ([City]) is a subset of ([City], [Category]).
  • Not valid: SUM([Sales] BEFORE FILTER BY [Category]) - SUM([Sales] BEFORE FILTER BY [City]) — functions are not nested and neither of ([Category]) and ([City]) is a subset of the other.

Usage Restrictions

There are the following features of using aggregations:

  1. A function or operator cannot have aggregate and non-aggregate expressions as its arguments simultaneously. The following usage is forbidden: CONCAT([Profit], SUM([Profit])).

ALL_CONCAT

Syntax:
ALL_CONCAT( expression [ , separator ] )
or
ALL_CONCAT( expression [ , separator ] [ FIXED ... | INCLUDE ... | EXCLUDE ... ] [ BEFORE FILTER BY ... ] )

Returns a string that contains all unique values of expression delimited by separator (if separator is not specified, a comma is used).

ANY

Syntax:
ANY( value )
or
ANY( value [ FIXED ... | INCLUDE ... | EXCLUDE ... ] [ BEFORE FILTER BY ... ] )

Returns one of the values of value from the group. This is a nondeterministic aggregation — the result may vary for the same data over multiple queries.

ARG_MAX

Syntax:
ARG_MAX( value, comp )
or
ARG_MAX( value, comp [ FIXED ... | INCLUDE ... | EXCLUDE ... ] [ BEFORE FILTER BY ... ] )

Returns value for the maximum value of comp in the group. If multiple values of value match the maximum value of comp, then the first one encountered is returned. This makes the function non-deterministic.

ARG_MIN

Syntax:
ARG_MIN( value, comp )
or
ARG_MIN( value, comp [ FIXED ... | INCLUDE ... | EXCLUDE ... ] [ BEFORE FILTER BY ... ] )

Returns value for the minimum value of comp in the group. If multiple values of value match the minimum value of comp, then the first one encountered is returned. This makes the function non-deterministic.

AVG

Syntax:
AVG( value )
or
AVG( value [ FIXED ... | INCLUDE ... | EXCLUDE ... ] [ BEFORE FILTER BY ... ] )

Returns the average of all values. Applicable to numeric data types as well as Date.

AVG_IF

Syntax:
AVG_IF( expression, condition )
or
AVG_IF( expression, condition [ FIXED ... | INCLUDE ... | EXCLUDE ... ] [ BEFORE FILTER BY ... ] )

Returns the average of all values that meet the condition condition. If the values don't exist, it returns NULL. Applicable to numeric data types only.

COUNT

Syntax:
COUNT( [ value ] )
or
COUNT( [ value ] [ FIXED ... | INCLUDE ... | EXCLUDE ... ] [ BEFORE FILTER BY ... ] )

Returns the number of items in the group.

COUNT_IF

Syntax:
COUNT_IF( condition )
or
COUNT_IF( condition [ FIXED ... | INCLUDE ... | EXCLUDE ... ] [ BEFORE FILTER BY ... ] )

Returns the number of items in the group meeting the condition condition.

COUNTD

Syntax:
COUNTD( value )
or
COUNTD( value [ FIXED ... | INCLUDE ... | EXCLUDE ... ] [ BEFORE FILTER BY ... ] )

Returns the number of unique values in the group.

See also COUNTD_APPROX.

COUNTD_APPROX

Syntax:
COUNTD_APPROX( value )
or
COUNTD_APPROX( value [ FIXED ... | INCLUDE ... | EXCLUDE ... ] [ BEFORE FILTER BY ... ] )

Returns the approximate number of unique values in the group. Faster than COUNTD, but doesn't guarantee accuracy.

COUNTD_IF

Syntax:
COUNTD_IF( expression, condition )
or
COUNTD_IF( expression, condition [ FIXED ... | INCLUDE ... | EXCLUDE ... ] [ BEFORE FILTER BY ... ] )

Returns the number of unique values in the group that meet the condition condition.

See also COUNTD_APPROX.

MAX

Syntax:
MAX( value )
or
MAX( value [ FIXED ... | INCLUDE ... | EXCLUDE ... ] [ BEFORE FILTER BY ... ] )

Returns the maximum value.

If value:

  • number — Returns the largest number.
  • date — Returns the latest date.
  • string — Returns the last value in the alphabetic order.

MEDIAN

Syntax:
MEDIAN( value )
or
MEDIAN( value [ FIXED ... | INCLUDE ... | EXCLUDE ... ] [ BEFORE FILTER BY ... ] )

Returns the median value.

MIN

Syntax:
MIN( value )
or
MIN( value [ FIXED ... | INCLUDE ... | EXCLUDE ... ] [ BEFORE FILTER BY ... ] )

Returns the minimum value.

If value:

  • number — Returns the smallest number.
  • date — Returns the earliest date.
  • string — Returns the first value in the alphabetic order.

QUANTILE

Syntax:
QUANTILE( value, quant )
or
QUANTILE( value, quant [ FIXED ... | INCLUDE ... | EXCLUDE ... ] [ BEFORE FILTER BY ... ] )

Returns the precise quant-level quantile (quant should be in range from 0 to 1).

QUANTILE_APPROX

Syntax:
QUANTILE_APPROX( value, quant )
or
QUANTILE_APPROX( value, quant [ FIXED ... | INCLUDE ... | EXCLUDE ... ] [ BEFORE FILTER BY ... ] )

Returns the approximate quant-level quantile (quant should be in range from 0 to 1).

STDEV

Syntax:
STDEV( value )
or
STDEV( value [ FIXED ... | INCLUDE ... | EXCLUDE ... ] [ BEFORE FILTER BY ... ] )

Returns the statistical standard deviation of all values in the expression based on a selection from the population.

STDEVP

Syntax:
STDEVP( value )
or
STDEVP( value [ FIXED ... | INCLUDE ... | EXCLUDE ... ] [ BEFORE FILTER BY ... ] )

Returns the statistical standard deviation of all values in the expression based on the biased population.

SUM

Syntax:
SUM( value )
or
SUM( value [ FIXED ... | INCLUDE ... | EXCLUDE ... ] [ BEFORE FILTER BY ... ] )

Returns the sum of all expression values. Applicable to numeric data types only.

SUM_IF

Syntax:
SUM_IF( expression, condition )
or
SUM_IF( expression, condition [ FIXED ... | INCLUDE ... | EXCLUDE ... ] [ BEFORE FILTER BY ... ] )

Returns the sum of all the expression values that meet the condition condition. Applicable to numeric data types only.

TOP_CONCAT

Syntax:
TOP_CONCAT( expression, amount [ , separator ] )
or
TOP_CONCAT( expression, amount [ , separator ] [ FIXED ... | INCLUDE ... | EXCLUDE ... ] [ BEFORE FILTER BY ... ] )

Returns a string that contains top amount unique values of expression delimited by separator (if separator is not specified, a comma is used).

VAR

Syntax:
VAR( value )
or
VAR( value [ FIXED ... | INCLUDE ... | EXCLUDE ... ] [ BEFORE FILTER BY ... ] )

Returns the statistical variance of all values in an expression based on a selection from the population.

VARP

Syntax:
VARP( value )
or
VARP( value [ FIXED ... | INCLUDE ... | EXCLUDE ... ] [ BEFORE FILTER BY ... ] )

Returns the statistical variance of all values in an expression across the entire population.